# Robust Methods

##### May 12, 2010

This year we are presenting “Introduction to Robust Methods” at Eigenvector University. I’ve been working madly preparing a set of course notes. And I must say that it has been pretty interesting. I’ve had a chance to try the robust versions of PCA, PCR and PLS on many of the data sets we’ve used for teaching and demoing software, and I’ve been generally pleased with the results. Upon review of my course notes, our Donal O’Sullivan asked why we don’t use the robust versions of these methods all the time. I think that is a legitimate question!

In a nutshell, robust methods work by finding the subset of samples in the data that are most consistent. Typically this involves use of the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) method, which finds the samples that have a covariance with the smallest determinant, which is a measure of the volume occupied by the data. The user specifies the fraction, *h*, to include, and the algorithm searches out the optimal set. The parameter *h* is between 0.5 and 1, and a good general default is 0.75. With *h* = 0.75 the model can resist up to 25% arbitrarily bad samples without going completely astray. After finding the *h* subset, the methods then look to see what remaining samples fall within the statistical bounds of the model and re-include them. Any remaining samples are considered outliers.

The main advantage of robust methods is that they automate the process of finding outliers. This is especially convenient when the data sets have many samples and a substantial fraction of bad data. How many times have you removed an obvious outlier from a data set only to find another outlier that wasn’t obvious until the first one is gone? This problem, known as *masking*, is virtually eliminated with robust methods. *Swamping*, when normal samples appear as outliers due to the confidence limits being stretched by the true outliers, is also mitigated.

So am I ready to set my default algorithm preferences to “robust?” Well, not quite. There is some chance that useful samples, sometimes required for building the model over a wide range of the data, will be thrown out. But I think I’ll at least review the robust results now each time I make a model on any medium or large data set, and consider why the robust method identifies them as outliers.

FYI, for those of you using PLS_Toolbox or Solo, you can access the robust option in PCA, PCR and PLS from the analysis window by choosing Edit/Options/Method Options.

Finally, I should note that the robust methods in our products are there due to a collaboration with Mia Hubert and her Robust Statistics Group at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and in particular, Sabine Verboven. They have been involved with the development of LIBRA, A MATLAB LIBrary for Robust Analysis. Our products rely on LIBRA for the robust “engines.” Sabine spent considerable time with us helping us integrate LIBRA into our software. Many thanks for that!

BMW